Geography of africa wiki japan history

It is an archipelago that is made up of over 6, islands, the largest of which are Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Shikoku. Japan is one of the world's largest countries by population and it has one of the world's largest economies.

Japan's first contact with the west was recorded in when a Portuguese ship bound for China landed on Japan instead. As a result, traders from Portugal, the Netherlands, England, and Spain all began to go to Japan shortly thereafter, as did several different missionaries. In the 17th century, however, Japan's shogun a military leader determined that these foreign visitors were a military conquest and all contact with foreign countries was barred for about years.

Inthe Convention of Kanagawa opened Japan up to relations with the west, causing the shogun to resign which led to the restoration of Japan's emperor as well as the adoption of new, western-influenced traditions.

geography of africa wiki japan history

According to the U. Department of State, in the late 19th century Japan's leaders began to view the Korean Peninsula as a threat and from to it was involved in a war over Korea with China and from to it fought a similar war with Russia. InJapan annexed Korea. With the beginning of World War IJapan began to influence much of Asia which allowed it to quickly grow and expand its Pacific territories. Shortly thereafter it joined the League of Nations and inJapan invaded Manchuria.

On September 2,Japan surrendered to the U. As a result of the war, Japan lost its overseas territories, including Korea, and Manchuria went back to China. In addition, the country fell under the control of the Allies with the goal of making it a democratic self-governing nation. It thus underwent many reforms and in its constitution went into effect and inJapan and the Allies signed the Treaty of Peace.

On April 28,Japan gained full independence. Today, Japan is a parliamentary government with a constitutional monarchy. It has an executive branch of government with a chief of state the Emperor and a head of government the Prime Minister. Japan's legislative branch consists of a bicameral Diet or Kokkai that is made up of the House of Councilors and the House of Representatives.

Geologic history

Its judicial branch consists of the Supreme Court. Japan is divided into 47 prefectures for local administration. Japan's economy is one of the largest and most advanced in the world.

It is famous for its motor vehicles and electronics and its other industries include machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals, textiles, and processed foods. Its topography consists mainly of rugged mountains and it is a highly geologically active region. In addition, the country has active volcanoes. The climate of Japan varies upon location—it is tropical in the south and cool temperate in the north.

On March 11,Japan was struck by a magnitude 9.Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continentafter Asia in both cases. At about Africa's population is the youngest amongst all the continents; [5] [6] the median age in was The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea to the northeast, the Indian Ocean to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.

The continent includes Madagascar and various archipelagos. It contains 54 fully recognised sovereign states countrieseight territories and two de facto independent states with limited or no recognition. Algeria is Africa's largest country by area, and Nigeria is its largest by population.

African nations cooperate through the establishment of the African Unionwhich is headquartered in Addis Ababa. Africa straddles the Equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones.

Africa is home to much biodiversity; it is the continent with the largest number of megafauna species, as it was least affected by the extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna. However, Africa also is heavily affected by a wide range of environmental issuesincluding desertification, deforestation, water scarcityand other issues. These entrenched environmental concerns are expected to worsen as climate change impacts Africa. Africa, particularly Eastern Africais widely accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade great apesmeaning that Africa has a long and complex history.

The earliest hominids and their ancestors have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensisAustralopithecus africanusA. Following a subsequent long and complex history of civilizations, migration and trade, Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicitiescultures and languages. The last years have witnessed an increasing European influence on the continent.

Starting in the 16th century, this was driven by trade, including the Trans-Atlantic slave tradewhich created large African diaspora populations in the Americas. In the late 19th centuryEuropean countries colonized almost all of Africaextracting resources from the continent and exploiting local communities; most present states in Africa emerged from a process of decolonisation in the 20th century. Afri was a Latin name used to refer to the inhabitants of then-known northern Africa to the west of the Nile river, and in its widest sense referred to all lands south of the Mediterranean Ancient Libya.

Under Roman rule, Carthage became the capital of the province it then named Africa Proconsularisfollowing its defeat of the Carthaginians in the Third Punic War in BC, which also included the coastal part of modern Libya. The later Muslim region of Ifriqiyafollowing its conquest of the Byzantine Eastern Roman Empire's Exarchatus Africaealso preserved a form of the name. According to the Romans, Africa lay to the west of Egypt, while "Asia" was used to refer to Anatolia and lands to the east.

A definite line was drawn between the two continents by the geographer Ptolemy 85— ADindicating Alexandria along the Prime Meridian and making the isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea the boundary between Asia and Africa. As Europeans came to understand the real extent of the continent, the idea of "Africa" expanded with their knowledge.

Africa is considered by most paleoanthropologists to be the oldest inhabited territory on Earthwith the human species originating from the continent. Fossil remains of several species of early apelike humans thought to have evolved into modern man, such as Australopithecus afarensis radiometrically dated to approximately 3. After the evolution of Homo sapiens approximatelytoyears BP in Africa, [18] [19] [20] [21] the continent was mainly populated by groups of hunter-gatherers.

Other migrations of modern humans within the African continent have been dated to that time, with evidence of early human settlement found in Southern AfricaSoutheast AfricaNorth Africaand the Sahara. The size of the Sahara has historically been extremely variable, with its area rapidly fluctuating and at times disappearing depending on global climatic conditions. Around BC, due to a tilt in the earth's orbit, the Sahara experienced a period of rapid desertification.

geography of africa wiki japan history

A major climatic recession occurred, lessening the heavy and persistent rains in Central and Eastern Africa. Since this time, dry conditions have prevailed in Eastern Africa and, increasingly during the last years, in Ethiopia. The domestication of cattle in Africa preceded agriculture and seems to have existed alongside hunter-gatherer cultures.

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It is speculated that by BC, cattle were domesticated in North Africa. Between the 10,—9, BC, pottery was independently invented in the region of Mali in the savannah of West Africa. Later, gourdswatermelonscastor beansand cotton were also collected and domesticated.

Fishingusing bone-tipped harpoonsbecame a major activity in the numerous streams and lakes formed from the increased rains. Between 9, and 5, BC, Niger—Congo speakers domesticated the oil palm and raffia palm.

Black-eyed peas and voandzeia African groundnutswere domesticated, followed by okra and kola nuts. Since most of the plants grew in the forest, the Niger—Congo speakers invented polished stone axes for clearing forest.It is not known when humans first settled on the Japanese archipelago.

It was long believed that there was no Paleolithic occupation in Japan, but since World War II thousands of sites have been unearthed throughout the countryyielding a wide variety of Paleolithic tools.

These include both core toolsmade by chipping away the surface of a stone, and flake toolsmade by working with a stone flake broken off from a larger piece of stone. There is little doubt that the people who used these implements moved to Japan from the Asian continent. The Paleolithic Period in Japan is variously dated from 30, to 10, years ago, although the argument has been made for a Lower Paleolithic culture prior to 35, bce.

Nothing certain is known of the culture of the period, though it seems likely that people lived by hunting and gathering, used fire, and made their homes either in pit-type dwellings or in caves. No bone or horn artifacts of the kind associated with this period in other areas of the world have yet been found in Japan. Since there was no knowledge whatsoever of pottery, the period is referred to as the Pre-Ceramic era. Climatic changes help to account for the existence of a Mesolithic stage in early Japanese culture, a time when much of the abundant fauna of earlier times became depleted by the expanding human population of the archipelago.

The introduction of the bow and arrow is regarded as a local response to a decrease in game available for food. The former takes its name from a type of pottery found throughout the archipelago; its discoverer, the 19th-century American zoologist Edward S. While continental influence is suspected, the fact that Kyushu pottery remains predate any Chinese findings strongly suggests that the impetus to develop pottery was local. It is customary to regard changes in pottery types as a basis for subdividing the age into six periods: Incipient c.

The pottery of the Incipient and Initial periods includes many deep urnlike vessels with tapered bullet-shaped bases. In the Early period the vessels of eastern Japan become roughly cylindrical in shape, with flat bases, and the walls contain an admixture of vegetable fibre.

The surfaces of these normally cylindrical vessels are covered with complex patterns of raised lines, and powerfully decorative projections rise from the rims to form handles.

Geography of Japan

From the Middle period onward there is increasing variety in the types of vessels, and a clear distinction developed between high-quality ware using elaborate techniques and simpler, purely functional pots. The amount of the latter type increases steadily, preparing the way for the transition to Yayoi pottery.

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They can be classified into two types: one, the pit-type dwelling, consisted of a shallow pit with a floor of trodden earth and a roof; the other was made by laying a circular or oval floor of clay or stones on the surface of the ground and covering it with a roof.

Remains of such dwellings have been found in groups ranging from five or six to several dozen, apparently representing the size of human settlements at the time. Most of these settlements form a horseshoe shape, with a space in the centre that seems to have been used for communal purposes.

Nothing certain is known, however, concerning social or political organization at this period. It can be deduced that each household was made up of several family members and that the settlement made up of such households was led by a headman or shaman.

geography of africa wiki japan history

The appearance of large settlements from the Middle period onward has been interpreted by some scholars as implying the cultivation of certain types of crop—a hypothesis seemingly supported by the fact that the chipped-stone axes of this period are not sharp but seem to have been used for digging soil.

Doubtless there was some form of cultivation: starchy yams and taro, probably originating from the continent, were raised, the starch from them formed into a type of bread. Weaving of fibres was still unknown, though woven baskets have been found dating to the Early period.

Archaeological findings indicate that clothes were largely made of bark. Body ornamentation included bracelets made of seashells, earrings of stone or clay, and necklaces and hair ornaments of stone or bone and horn. From the latter part of the period, the custom also spread throughout the archipelago of extracting or sharpening certain teeth, probably performed as a rite marking the attainment of adulthood. No especially elaborate rites of burial evolved, and the dead were buried in a small pit dug near the dwelling.

Sometimes the body was buried with its knees drawn up or with a stone clasped to its chest, a procedure that probably had some religious or magical significance. A large number of clay figurines have been found, many representing female forms that were probably magical objects associated with primitive fertility cults. Despite certain variations in character arising from differences in period or place, they seem to have constituted a single ethnic stock with more or less consistent characteristics.

The present Japanese people were produced by an admixture of certain strains from the Asian continent and from the South Pacific, together with adaptations made in accordance with environmental changes.Japan is the eleventh-most populous country in the world, as well as one of the most densely populated and urbanized. About three-fourths of the country's terrain is mountainous, concentrating its population of Japan is divided into 47 administrative prefectures and eight traditional regions.

geography of africa wiki japan history

The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world, with more than Japan has been inhabited since the Upper Paleolithic period 30, BCthough the first mentions of the archipelago appear in Chinese chronicles from the 1st century AD. After a century-long period of civil warthe country was reunified in under the Tokugawa shogunatewhich enacted an isolationist foreign policy. Ina United States fleet forced Japan to open trade to the Westwhich led to the end of the shogunate and the restoration of imperial power in In the Meiji periodthe Empire of Japan adopted a Western-styled constitution and pursued a program of industrialization and modernization.

After suffering defeat in the Pacific War and two atomic bombingsJapan surrendered in and came under a seven-year Allied occupationduring which it adopted a new constitution. SinceJapan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a bicameral legislature, the National Diet. Japan is a great power and a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations sincethe OECDand the Group of Seven. Although it has renounced its right to declare warthe country maintains Self-Defense Forces that are ranked as the world's fourth-most powerful military.

After World War II, Japan experienced high economic growthbecoming the second-largest economy in the world by before being surpassed by China in A leader in the automotive and electronics industriesJapan has made significant contributions to science and technology.

Ranked the second-highest country on the Human Development Index in Asia after SingaporeJapan has the world's second-highest life expectancythough it is experiencing a decline in population. Culture of Japan is well-known around the world, including its artcuisinemusicand popular culturewhich encompasses prominent animation and video game industries. The name Japan is based on the Chinese pronunciation and was introduced to European languages through early trade.

Buddhism was introduced to Japan from Baekje a Korean kingdom inbut the subsequent development of Japanese Buddhism was primarily influenced by China. The far-reaching Taika Reforms in nationalized all land in Japan, to be distributed equally among cultivators, and ordered the compilation of a household registry as the basis for a new system of taxation.

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The period is characterized by the appearance of a nascent literary culture with the completion of the Kojiki and Nihon Shokias well as the development of Buddhist-inspired artwork and architecture. Murasaki Shikibu 's The Tale of Genji and the lyrics of Japan's national anthem " Kimigayo " were written during this time.

Japan's feudal era was characterized by the emergence and dominance of a ruling class of warriors, the samurai. During the 16th century, Portuguese traders and Jesuit missionaries reached Japan for the first time, initiating direct commercial and cultural exchange between Japan and the West.Africathe second largest continent after Asiacovering about one-fifth of the total land surface of Earth.

The continent is bounded on the west by the Atlantic Oceanon the north by the Mediterranean Seaon the east by the Red Sea and the Indian Oceanand on the south by the mingling waters of the Atlantic and Indian oceans. Paradoxically, the coastline of Africa—18, miles 30, km in length—is shorter than that of Europebecause there are few inlets and few large bays or gulfs.

Off the coasts of Africa a number of islands are associated with the continent. Of these Madagascarone of the largest islands in the world, is the most significant. The continent is cut almost equally in two by the Equatorso that most of Africa lies within the tropical region, bounded on the north by the Tropic of Cancer and on the south by the Tropic of Capricorn.

The name Africa, however, was chiefly applied to the northern coast of the continent, which was, in effect, regarded as a southern extension of Europe. The Romans, who for a time ruled the North African coast, are also said to have called the area south of their settlements Afriga, or the Land of the Afrigs—the name of a Berber community south of Carthage. The whole of Africa can be considered as a vast plateau rising steeply from narrow coastal strips and consisting of ancient crystalline rocks.

In general the plateau may be divided into a southeastern portion and a northwestern portion.

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The northwestern part, which includes the Sahara desert and that part of North Africa known as the Maghribhas two mountainous regions—the Atlas Mountains in northwestern Africa, which are believed to be part of a system that extends into southern Europe, and the Ahaggar Hoggar Mountains in the Sahara.

The southeastern part of the plateau includes the Ethiopian Plateauthe East African Plateau, and—in eastern South Africawhere the plateau edge falls downward in a scarp—the Drakensberg range.

This richness is matched by a great diversity of biological resources that includes the intensely lush equatorial rainforests of Central Africa and the world-famous populations of wildlife of the eastern and southern portions of the continent. Although agriculture primarily subsistence still dominates the economies of many African countries, the exploitation of these resources became the most significant economic activity in Africa in the 20th century.

Climatic and other factors have exerted considerable influence on the patterns of human settlement in Africa. While some areas appear to have been inhabited more or less continuously since the dawn of humanity, enormous regions—notably the desert areas of northern and southwestern Africa—have been largely unoccupied for prolonged periods of time.

The greater part of the continent has long been inhabited by Black peoples, but in historic times there also have occurred major immigrations from both Asia and Europe. Of all foreign settlements in Africa, that of the Arabs has made the greatest impact. The Islamic religion, which the Arabs carried with them, spread from North Africa into many areas south of the Sahara, so that many western African peoples are now largely Islamized. This article treats the physical and human geography of Africa, followed by discussion of geographic features of special interest.

For discussion of individual countries of the continent, see such articles as EgyptMadagascarand Sudan. African regions are treated under the titles Central Africaeastern AfricaNorth AfricaSouthern Africaand western Africa ; these articles also contain the principal treatment of African historical and cultural development.

For discussion of major cities of the continent, see such articles as AlexandriaCairoCape TownJohannesburgand Kinshasa. Related topics are discussed in the articles literature, African ; literature, South African ; architecture, African ; art, African ; dance, African ; music, African ; theatre, African ; art and architecture, Egyptian ; Islam ; arts, Islamic ; and Islamic world.

Africa Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Print print Print. Table Of Contents. Facebook Twitter. Give Feedback External Websites. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article requires login. External Websites. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. David N. Coauthor of An Advanced Geography of Africa. Britannica Quiz. Geography of Africa Quiz.It is the 6th most populous country in Asia excluding Russiawith a population of over million people.

Yet, the population of Japan has been slowly decreasing over the years, because of the low birth rate and aging population. Tokyo is the captial of Japan. It is located north of Yokohama, and west of Mnt. The city is located on the largest island of Japan, Honshu, and is the most populous city in Japan, and sometimes referred to as the most populous metropolitan area in the world.

Yokohama is located south of Tokyo, and west of Mnt. Yokohama also lies on the western coast of japan. Nagoya is a city that is far away from most other cities. It is east to Mnt. Fuji, Tokyo, and Yokohama, and west from Kobe and Osaka. It also lies on the western coast of Japan. Osaka was once ruled by a five year old by who was later defeated in the Castle of Osaka by a Daimyou Army led by Shogun Tokugawa.

Osaka lies very close to Kobe, which is at east to Osaka. It is north to the western coast of Japan, and east to Nagoya. Hiroshima lies west from Kitakyusnu and East from Osaka and Kobe. Hiroshima is in the southern part of Japan. Kitakyusnu is very close to the city of Fukuoka, which lies east of Kitakyusnu. Kitakakyusnu is located on the island of Kyushu. West of Kitakyusnu is Hiroshima. Mount Fuji is a mountain between Nagoya and Tokyo with its southern neighbor, Yokohama.

Fuji is located on the middle of the island of Honshu. Shikoku lies souther of the island of Honshu, and west from the island of Kyushu. Shikoku is the only island in Japan that has no cities in it.It is divided in half almost equally by the Equator. Africas physical geographyenvironment and resources, and human geography can be considered separately. Some of these regions cover large bands of the continent, such as the Sahara and Sahel, while others are isolated areas, such as the Ethiopian Highlands and the Great Lakes.

Each of these regions has unique animal and plant communities. Sahara The Sahara is the worlds largest hot desertcovering 8. Defining Africa's northern bulge, the Sahara makes up 25 percent of the continent.

The Sahara has a number of distinct physical features, including ergs, regs, hamadas, and oases. Erg s, which cover 20 percent of the Sahara, are sand dune s that stretch for hundreds of kilometers at heights of more than meters 1, feet.

Ergs cover most of Algeria and Libya and parts of Mali and Nigeria. Ergs can contain large quantities of saltwhich is sold for industrial and food use. Reg s are plains of sand and gravel that make up 70 percent of the Sahara.

The gravel can be black, red, or white. Regs are the remains of prehistoric seabeds and riverbeds, but are now nearly waterless. Hamada s are elevated plateau s of rock and stone that reach heights of 3, meters 11, feet.

They include the Atlas Mountains, which stretch from southwestern Morocco to northeastern Tunisia; the Tibesti Mountains of southern Libya and northern Chad; and the Ahaggar Mountains in southern Algeria.

An oasis is a hub of water in the desert, often in the form of spring s, wells, or irrigation systems. About 75 percent of the Saharas population lives in oases, which make up only 2, square kilometers square miles of the deserts vast area. The Saharas animal and plant communities have adapted to the regions extremely dry conditions. The kidney s of the jerboa, a type of rodent, produce highly concentrated urine that minimizes water loss. A dromedary camel conserve s water by changing its body temperature so it doesn't sweat as the day gets hotter.

The scorpion limits its activities to night, burrowing into the cooler sands beneath the surface during the day. The scorpion, a predatoralso absorbs water from the flesh of its prey. Saharan plants survive thanks to root systems that plunge as far as 24 meters 80 feet underground.

In parts of the Sahara, plants cannot take root at all. In the southern Libyan Desert, for instance, no greenery exists for more than kilometers miles. Sahel The Sahel is a narrow band of semi- arid land that forms a transition zone between the Sahara to the north and the savannas to the south.

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It is made up of flat, barren plain s that stretch roughly 5, kilometers 3, miles across Africa, from Senegal to Sudan. The Sahel contains the fertile delta of the Niger, one of Africas longest rivers.

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Unfortunately, the Sahels fertile land is rapidly becoming desert as a result of droughtdeforestationand intensive agriculture.


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